20 Greatest Inventions by Muslim Scientists

From coffee to cheques and the three-course meal, the Muslim world has given us many innovations that we take for granted in daily life. As a new exhibition opens, Paul Vallely nominates 20 of the most influential- and identifies the men of genius behind them

1) Coffee
The story goes that an Arab named Khalid was tending his goats in the Kaffa region of southern Ethiopia, when he noticed his animals became livelier after eating a certain berry. He boiled the berries to make the first coffee. Certainly the first record of the drink is of beans exported from Ethiopia to Yemen where Sufis drank it to stay awake all night to pray on special occasions. By the late 15th century it had arrived in Mecca and Turkey from where it made its way to Venice in 1645. It was brought to England in 1650 by a Turk named Pasqua Rosee who opened the first coffee house in Lombard Street in the City of London.

The Arabic qahwa became the Turkish kahve then the Italian caffé and then English coffee

2) Pin-Hole Camera
The ancient Greeks thought our eyes emitted rays, like a laser, which enabled us to see. The first person to realise that light enters the eye, rather than leaving it, was the 10th-century Muslim mathematician, astronomer and physicist Ibn al-Haitham. He invented the first pin-hole camera after noticing the way light came through a hole in window shutters. The smaller the hole, the better the picture, he worked out, and set up the first Camera Obscura (from the Arab word qamara for a dark or private room). He is also credited with being the first man to shift physics from a philosophical activity to an experimental one.

3) Chess
A form of chess was played in ancient India but the game was developed into the form we know it today in Persia. From there it spread westward to Europe – where it was introduced by the Moors in Spain in the 10th century – and eastward as far as Japan. The word rook comes from the Persian rukh, which means chariot.
4) Parachute
A thousand years before the Wright brothers a Muslim poet, astronomer, musician and engineer named Abbas ibn Firnas made several attempts to construct a flying machine. In 852 he jumped from the minaret of the Grand Mosque in Cordoba using a loose cloak stiffened with wooden struts. He hoped to glide like a bird. He didn’t. But the cloak slowed his fall, creating what is thought to be the first parachute, and leaving him with only minor injuries. In 875, aged 70, having perfected a machine of silk and eagles’ feathers he tried again, jumping from a mountain. He flew to a significant height and stayed aloft for ten minutes but crashed on landing – concluding, correctly, that it was because he had not given his device a tail so it would stall on landing.

Baghdad international airport and a crater on the Moon are named after him.
5) Shampoo
Washing and bathing are religious requirements for Muslims, which is perhaps why they perfected the recipe for soap which we still use today. The ancient Egyptians had soap of a kind, as did the Romans who used it more as a pomade. But it was the Arabs who combined vegetable oils with sodium hydroxide and aromatics such as thyme oil. One of the Crusaders’ most striking characteristics, to Arab nostrils, was that they did not wash. Shampoo was introduced to England by a Muslim who opened Mahomed’s Indian Vapour Baths on Brighton seafront in 1759 and was appointed Shampooing Surgeon to Kings George IV and William IV.
6) Refinement
Distillation, the means of separating liquids through differences in their boiling points, was invented around the year 800 by Islam’s foremost scientist, Jabir ibn Hayyan, who transformed alchemy into chemistry, inventing many of the basic processes and apparatus still in use today – liquefaction, crystallisation, distillation, purification, oxidisation, evaporation and filtration. As well as discovering sulphuric and nitric acid, he invented the alembic still, giving the world intense rosewater and other perfumes and alcoholic spirits (although drinking them is haram, or forbidden, in Islam). Ibn Hayyan emphasised systematic experimentation and was the founder of modern chemistry

7) Shaft
The crank-shaft is a device which translates rotary into linear motion and is central to much of the machinery in the modern world, not least the internal combustion engine. One of the most important mechanical inventions in the history of humankind, it was created by an ingenious Muslim engineer called al-Jazari to raise water for irrigation. His 1206 Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices shows he also invented or refined the use of valves and pistons, devised some of the first mechanical clocks driven by water and weights, and was the father of robotics. Among his 50 other inventions was the combination lock.

8) Metal Armor
Quilting is a method of sewing or tying two layers of cloth with a layer of insulating material in between. It is not clear whether it was invented in the Muslim world or whether it was imported there from India or China. But it certainly came to the West via the Crusaders. They saw it used by Saracen warriors, who wore straw-filled quilted canvas shirts instead of armour. As well as a form of protection, it proved an effective guard against the chafing of the Crusaders’ metal armour and was an effective form of insulation – so much so that it became a cottage industry back home in colder climates such as Britain and Holland.

9) Pointed Arch
The pointed arch so characteristic of Europe’s Gothic cathedrals was an invention borrowed from Islamic architecture. It was much stronger than the rounded arch used by the Romans and Normans, thus allowing the building of bigger, higher, more complex and grander buildings. Other borrowings from Muslim genius included ribbed vaulting, rose windows and dome-building techniques. Europe’s castles were also adapted to copy the Islamic world’s – with arrow slits, battlements, a barbican and parapets. Square towers and keeps gave way to more easily defended round ones. Henry V’s castle architect was a Muslim.

10) Surgery
Many modern surgical instruments are of exactly the same design as those devised in the 10th century by a Muslim surgeon called al-Zahrawi. His scalpels, bone saws, forceps, fine scissors for eye surgery and many of the 200 instruments he devised are recognisable to a modern surgeon. It was he who discovered that catgut used for internal stitches dissolves away naturally (a discovery he made when his monkey ate his lute strings) and that it can be also used to make medicine capsules. In the 13th century, another Muslim medic named Ibn Nafis described the circulation of the blood, 300 years before William Harvey discovered it. Muslims doctors also invented anaesthetics of opium and alcohol mixes and developed hollow needles to suck cataracts from eyes in a technique still used today.

11) Windmill
The windmill was invented in 634 for a Persian caliph and was used to grind corn and draw up water for irrigation. In the vast deserts of Arabia, when the seasonal streams ran dry, the only source of power was the wind which blew steadily from one direction for months. Mills had six or 12 sails covered in fabric or palm leaves. It was 500 years before the first windmill was seen in Europe.

12) Vaccination
The technique of inoculation was not invented by Jenner and Pasteur but was devised in the Muslim world and brought to Europe from Turkey by the wife of the English ambassador to Istanbul in 1724. Children in Turkey were vaccinated with cowpox to fight the deadly smallpox at least 50 years before the West discovered it.

13) Fountain Pen
The fountain pen was invented for the Sultan of Egypt in 953 after he demanded a pen which would not stain his hands or clothes. It held ink in a reservoir and, as with modern pens, fed ink to the nib by a combination of gravity and capillary action.

14) Numerical Numbering
The system of numbering in use all round the world is probably Indian in origin but the style of the numerals is Arabic and first appears in print in the work of the Muslim mathematicians al-Khwarizmi and al-Kindi around 825. Algebra was named after al-Khwarizmi’s book, Al-Jabr wa-al-Muqabilah, much of whose contents are still in use. The work of Muslim maths scholars was imported into Europe 300 years later by the Italian mathematician Fibonacci. Algorithms and much of the theory of trigonometry came from the Muslim world. And Al-Kindi’s discovery of frequency analysis rendered all the codes of the ancient world soluble and created the basis of modern cryptology.

15) Soup
Ali ibn Nafi, known by his nickname of Ziryab (Blackbird) came from Iraq to Cordoba in the 9th century and brought with him the concept of the three-course meal – soup, followed by fish or meat, then fruit and nuts. He also introduced crystal glasses (which had been invented after experiments with rock crystal by Abbas ibn Firnas – see No 4).

16) Carpets
Carpets were regarded as part of Paradise by medieval Muslims, thanks to their advanced weaving techniques, new tinctures from Islamic chemistry and highly developed sense of pattern and arabesque which were the basis of Islam’s non-representational art. In contrast, Europe’s floors were distinctly earthly, not to say earthy, until Arabian and Persian carpets were introduced. In England, as Erasmus recorded, floors were “covered in rushes, occasionally renewed, but so imperfectly that the bottom layer is left undisturbed, sometimes for 20 years, harbouring expectoration, vomiting, the leakage of dogs and men, ale droppings, scraps of fish, and other abominations not fit to be mentioned”. Carpets, unsurprisingly, caught on quickly.

17) Pay Cheques
The modern cheque comes from the Arabic saqq, a written vow to pay for goods when they were delivered, to avoid money having to be transported across dangerous terrain. In the 9th century, a Muslim businessman could cash a cheque in China drawn on his bank in Baghdad.

18) Earch is in sphere shape?
By the 9th century, many Muslim scholars took it for granted that the Earth was a sphere. The proof, said astronomer Ibn Hazm, “is that the Sun is always vertical to a particular spot on Earth”. It was 500 years before that realisation dawned on Galileo. The calculations of Muslim astronomers were so accurate that in the 9th century they reckoned the Earth’s circumference to be 40, 253.4km – less than 200km out. The scholar al-Idrisi took a globe depicting the world to the court of King Roger of Sicily in 1139.
19) Rocket and Torpedo

Though the Chinese invented saltpetre gunpowder, and used it in their fireworks, it was the Arabs who worked out that it could be purified using potassium nitrate for military use. Muslim incendiary devices terrified the Crusaders. By the 15th century they had invented both a rocket, which they called a “self-moving and combusting egg”, and a torpedo – a self-propelled pear-shaped bomb with a spear at the front which impaled itself in enemy ships and then blew up.

20) Gardens
Medieval Europe had kitchen and herb gardens, but it was the Arabs who developed the idea of the garden as a place of beauty and meditation. The first royal pleasure gardens in Europe were opened in 11th-century Muslim Spain. Flowers which originated in Muslim gardens include the carnation and the tulip.

Source: independent.co.uk

Update: As commented by a reader, this article by Paul Vallely have been ‘debunked’ by an article in WikiIslam, with 68 references of which only TWO are from Islamic references . That doesn’t necessarily mean that Islam doesn’t contribute to the world of sciences.

Contrary to that, you should read up an article on Wikipedia whereby it is stated there that modern scholars such as Fielding H. Garrison, Bertrand Russell, Abdus Salam and Hossein Nasr consider modern science and the scientific method to have been greatly influenced by Muslim scientists who introduced a modern empirical, experimental and quantitative approach to scientific inquiry.

I like to highlight what John William Draper had said in “Intellectual Development of Europe” …….”I have to deplore the systematic manner in which the literature of Europe has continued to put out of sight our obligations to the Muhammadans. Surely they cannot be much longer hidden. Injustice founded on religious rancour and national conceit cannot be perpetuated forever. The Arab has left his intellectual impress on Europe. He has indelibly written it on the heavens as any one may see who reads the names of the stars on a common celestial globe.”


106 thoughts on “20 Greatest Inventions by Muslim Scientists

      • It’s human nature to hate or fear things not understood.. The Muslim contribution cannot be ignored!

  1. thanks for giving knowledge about the muslims scientists invention I really appriaciate for that please convey more knowledge about old scientists inventions

    • Dont say that Muslim are terrorist because the terrorism was started by Americans. The two bombs on Japan is the example of terrorism.

      • so you want to keep continue bombings and killings of other relegion in the name of jihadi. you say that the god is merciful – but where is the merci when a human dies in the name of a relegion. first, refrom your relegion to be really merciful and respect other beliefs also. this world is meant for all the living beings – you never can make it under one brand – if you are not realizing this – you or your generations will see what goes to happen to the earth – what /who is real god – what are real doctrines and what are bloughing in the name of a merciless relegion. think it over!

    • If you answer these question maybe you will know who did 😉

      Who killed thousands of aboriginal people in North America and Australia in order to occupy their lands and properties?
      Who killed millions of South Americans?
      Who killed millions of human beings in World War I?
      Who killed 6 million Jews during World War II?
      Who killed 2 million Polish Christians in World War II?
      Who killed 6 million Chinese during the invasion of China?
      Who killed 2 million Cambodian during the civil war?
      Who killed more than 2 million Filipinos during invasion of Philippines?
      Who killed more than half million Tibetans during the last 6 decades?
      Who killed more than 2 million Vietnamese during the Vietnam War?
      Who dropped chemical and biological bombs on Vietnam?
      Who dropped nuclear bombs on Japan and killed thousands of people in Hiroshima and Nagasaki?
      Who killed more than 2 million African Christians in Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Burundi and Congo within the last two decades?
      Who made more than 9.5 million human beings refugees in Africa?
      Who is killing and confiscating lands from White farmers in Zimbabwe?
      Who invented the nuclear, biological and chemical bombs?
      Who sells the most sophisticated bombs and the best killing machines to the world?
      Who killed hundreds of blacks in America and did not consider them as human beings until 1960s.
      Who are White Supremacists?
      Who did not consider women as persons until 1940s?
      I am purposely not asking you about the killings of millions of Muslims in Bosnia, Kossovo, Chechnya, Kashmir, Palestine, Russian Federation, Iraq, Afghanistan, China, India, etc

    • well if you talk about terrorism so it is not an invention.people like you create hate in people mind and support to enhance but dont increase love.because of few people you blame everyone I can give you the name of Christian,Hindu as well as Jew people who support terrorism but its not my work.I am Christian but I believe to love everyone and not despite and create hate in someone else mind.thank you

    • Excuse me! hold your tounge! Are not non muslim terrorists. Have you forgot Hitler and the two nuclear bombs of America. And RAW of India

  2. Very informative! I greatly appreaciate blogs such as this!


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  3. You copy pasted this and most of it is incorrect. I wish that you had thought out loud “I shouldn’t copy paste other people’s stuff as mine”. Anyways, Islam is evil no matter what Muslims do or create.

    @faithfreedominternational? : It wasn’t my intention to claim the article as mine. I forgot to put the link to the orininal article here, my fault. Islam is evil no matter what Muslims do or create? That’s your opinion! So if Muslims gave charity and help people, they are still evil since Islam is their faith? I’m sure not all people in LA agree with you. I bet Congressman Keith Ellison will disagree with you too.

    • Check this out.

      In the following video there is a report of a Muslim Lady who was killed inside the court room!!

      You are evil not we, USA attacked IRAQ giving reason that IRAQ has WMD and Biological Weapons!! Did they find it overthere!!!

      In Palestine, Iraq, Afghanistan, Chechina, Serbia, Kosovo, Sudan everywhere Muslims are being beaten!! Who is evil you or us!!

      Shame on you.

    • faithfreedominternational if it is your article and you think that we (MUSLIMS) copy pasted this with some editing, then sent the original copy of this to the international security center. Then we see, and by the way who are you to say that Islam & Muslims are evil. You are nothing, you are jealous of Muslims inventions, theories and their discoveries. Americans are the real devils who killed many peoples and destroy many countries and cities without any reason like japan in begning than Iraq,Iran and now they are trying to be the best but i tell you they are nothing behind us……… and shame on you

    • To:#9.faithfreedominternational
      It is easier to talk to an ignorant person because they are just that.You my dear friend you fit that category of people for you are judging Islam by what people do and not by what is Islam really is.If I was to look at Christianity by what people do than no one should become christians for you will have a lot of innocent blood on your hands and that cotrudicts whit the current teachings of Christianity.My advise to you is to read about true Islam and learn that it represnet peace and all you have to do is compare the past Islamic empires with the current Christian empires and see the differences between both…You will find that Islamic empires brought peace and prosperity vs.Crime and mischief….enough said…

  4. very informative,we people in the west or any other part of the world for that matter are not told or taught in schools or university true islamic history Muslims were the leaders in most fields.

  5. i am happy to read about muslims sceintst.now ALLAH bless muslims to follow islam.after following our faith we can get every thing.peace and prosparity we can defeat non muslim again


  7. The inventions described in the blog are mostly petty ones The Muslims have contributed much greater things in the fields of scientific research, art, literature, architecture, ship building and many more.

  8. ok peeps listen up. dont get all heated when ppl go like muslims r terrorists. its fine. u tell them wats the truth. most ppl take the Quran wrong. its not about flipping through the Quran finding verses that go like kill the non believers or stuff abt women. u gotta look @ it in CONTEXT! my op is that if u find something that makes u go like whoa go look up the tafseer. theres lots of authentic scholars (muslim american AND women 2) who’ve done tafseer of the whole Quran online. if all some ppl care about is going like “muslims r terrorists” well thats their prob.

    • Saying things like this on internet and anywhere on the media is what is causing all people to think that muslims are terrorists, so pls refrain from using these phrases.

  9. salam
    Thanks for the precious information about muslim scientist. Scientist whether muslim or not are the people working to bring our species more close to truth that’s to say to Allah if you know what i mean.

  10. muslims invented nothing but terrorism , killing and sex with youngsters by old moulavis. no data given in this is true muslim jihadis are trying to say that they are useful to world
    love jihad
    medical jihad
    bomb jihad
    sex jihad
    media jihad
    war jihad
    porn jihad
    web jihad
    etc are inventions of islam west invented everything and the world except islam contributed to it. so islam please leave the world fuck young boys and your grand mom and go to allah

    • was terrorism really invnted by muslims.. read your history or learn it at school, then come give us an inventory speech..

    • I think Arun u had never gone to school. so just go to school and read the books of invention. And secondly, your tongue language represent ur Hinduism and ur hinduism teachings. All the things, u told above is in ur religion but not in our ISLAM.

    • Arun. Jihad is that ram done against ravan? why hanuman fired lanka? there was not living childrens? femels? old ageds? answer/ what happened?

    • what is the meaning of jihad u don’t know…when ur kind of people destroy the countries like phalesine,iraq,kashmir,afganistan and now going to iran…..bcoz of saving our country we do jihad…..

    • Shut up! JIhad is an act which is obligatory on a
      muslim when the stupid non muslims donot allow muslims to practice islam like in Kashmir nowadays

  11. Brother Arun this shows that you are so depressed and have narrow thinking….what do u say about 16800 wives of (lord) and war with own brothers(Mahabharata),sati pratha,and the people who say ‘Bharat Mata ki Jay’but they hate the Indian Muslims and Christain why,360 billion gods,wat the hell is this brother….yr scripture says ‘Natasya pratima asti'(there is no image of god)but why u warship 360 billion gods…..Gita Ramayan,Upanisad,Veda is your scripture but subhan allah we muslim read these books and understand but you people are in the darkness…because yr scripture says ‘those who warship natural things and man made things they are in the darkness’

  12. u who say something about islam are the ignorant because are religon is islam and we never said anything about your religon so guess what ur the ignorant person.

    • ur so right and u said the truth out we all should do the same in addition to that the people who want to say something about our religon they will go to hell and thats when they will learn to not talk about our religon and you who talk about islam are showing a very bad example to u self and to your relgon good luck with that

  13. Pingback: 20 Greatest Inventions by Muslim Scientists - CSS Forums

    • ARUN is a Hindu extremist like extremist Jews, Christians and Talebans.
      Hindustan could not rise because of Hindu extremists like Pakistan and Afganistan could not develop because of Talebans.
      The truth is about the inventions of Muslim scientists. It is not necessary to mention about Muslim scientists but it is burning necessary to let the world know about the inventions and contributions of MUSLIM scientists because the Western Christian political leaders introduced the whole world that Muslims can not do anything. Barack Obama told the truth in Cairo speech that Muslims were used as PROXY by the west. No more as PROXY, please. The whole world is under the acquaintance of HUMAN BEINGS but people love to have an identity, grouping, nationality etc. RUSSIA invaded most of the Muslim countries and created Soviet Union. RUSSIA looted all sources from Soviet Muslim countries. British and French colonied most of the Asian and Arab/African Muslim countries. Netherlands colonied Malaysia and Indonesia for hundreds of years. Italy colonied Lybia for hundreds of years. Thus, all Muslim countries were under the colonies of Western Christian countries. It is not only the matter of Muslims, it is also matter of African Christians who were fooled by the Western Christians.

      USA and RUSSIA are like Tiger and Lion of the world. USA used ISLAM and motivated Pakistanis and Afganistanis to create Talibans to kill SECULAR MUSLIMS who supported Soviet Union. Bin Laden was requested to establish a world wide network to kill SECULAR MUSLIMS throughout the world. USA trained Al-Qaeda to kill communist and Secular Muslims. Soviet Union collapsed. Al-Qaeda demanded Kalif system ruling of the all Muslim countries from one single system. USA rejected the plan. USA used Al-Qeda to destroy Soviet Union so that it can rule the Muslim countries for natural resources. That created the war. Now, Christian youngsters do not understand the background of the history. They are just listening the stereotype propaganda of USA and European leaders and are misunderstanding Muslims. Good and bad individuals are existing everywhere and in every community but the way USA and Europe are moving is nothing but a turmoil of hates and dirty politics. Christians priests know facts but do not diclose and they are enjoying these conflicts and showing to other communities like Hindu/Buddhists that Christians are peaceful and tolerant etc. They are fooling emotional youngsters of Hindu and Buddhists. This is just a time of dirty game created by the USA and Europe.

      Now, USA and Europe are working together and occupying every places where Russia has interests. Russia is slowly becoming weaks. USA and Europe will perhaps rule the world for further 300 years without sharing with Russia. According to Newton’s third law: to everything has an action and equal reaction. The way USA and European Christians are pretending and showing a hypocratic face is the only the path of natural calamity and one day the USA and Europe will convert from LOOTER STATUS into a BEGGAR world.

  14. Jazkallahu khair brother !! This information should be reach to every shool and colleges and universities so that to they know the truth starting from our children.
    Asslamalykum Warahamatullahi Wabarakatahu !!

  15. Muslim scientist were best of all time. They had done a great job on all field’s of life. Great scientist great contributions. Muslim scientist were best are best and will be best for always.

  16. it is great.such type of information can create an awareness among the muslim people and can be useful for increasing their confidence

  17. Islam is a religion of peace, it teaches man the true concept of God and the purpose of his creation. Muslims believe in the existance of ONE TRUE GOD, which also JESUS (pbh) preached, if you analyse these verses mark 12:29, john 17:3, mathew 19:17-19, mark 10:18-20, mathew 5:17, mathew 15:8, mathew 7:20-23, john 5:30, luke 24:19 acts 2:22, mathew 26:39 and mathew 27:46. So Muslims believe in JESUS MOSES JOHN DAVID ABRAHAM and other prophet of God, no muslim is a muslim if he does not believe in JESUS!

  18. assalamu 3alaykum brothers and sisters in islam, i wld like to appreciate you for the work you have done of letting us know the contribution islam gave to science, may the lord reward you abundantly.

  19. This is the most funny comedic blog I have ever seen. LOL Too Funny. I have never seen so many idiots together in one place. LOL ROTFLMAO Muslims using their heads BAA HAAHAHHAHAAHAHAAAA! How many people have you killed today? Bomb any baby hospitals lately? Hust once I would like to see one of the big boys carry the bomb into the blast area. No way, they find some poor slob and tell him a bunch of BS about how he will have woman and drink in another life if he does it. And he will be forever loved by no one. They will forget his name before the bomb goes off. LOL What a load of crap. There are more versions of Islam than Carter has pills. Look that one up Muslims. You made a mockery of Mohammed by changing the text with mans writing in the Quran. Get real!

  20. jes waqt muslim spain ki galyah street light say roshan thei us waqt england kecher main latpat tha hamarey hukkamrano nay khuwar kar wa deya

  21. thank you for having eradicate the foolishness that i had and more so the confidence you have given when debating with the non-muslim.jazakallah.

  22. who are the foolish and afraid men, because they didn’t mention their name. I ask them to wil be a muslim at that time they can keep their strength as well as possible.

  23. Arun, try to understand what I’m saying that the jihad is not like to fight for escaping god’s wife. It is a good way to avoid attacks on islam like you.just think, is wife important to god?

  24. Isnt it true that Allah says 1. Everything is created in 6 days 2 .Earth is spread out ( that is flat like carpet laid on the ground) ?

  25. @ naju
    How about a 53 year old prophet married to a 9 year old minor Ayesha ? How about polygamous prophet and barbaric Arabians intruded in various lands to forcefully convert native people to Islam ?

  26. @naju
    Your prophet had sex with the dead body of on aunt Fatima. He married to 6 yr. old Ayesha and fornicated her at 9. Shame on you muslims for believing in pedophile and rapist prophet.

  27. Your ancestors were forcefully converted forcefully by rapist and mass-murderer gang of Arabia in medieval age. Pity your ancestors and you all forcefully converted muslims.

  28. Stupids…………Chess, Place value system, zero and shampoo were contributions of indians and except for very few contributions, which are no so ground breaking. Muslims contributed nothing. Look at muslim countries of today did they make anything new?? They get all the technical know-how from west ………

  29. Assalamu alaikum,really we are luckiest one muslim.my almighty Allah guide us on the right path,give us all good to day and in hereafter.make us in top of our enimies.

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